Toninia episema Ramalinaceae
Kiliasia episema # (Toninia episema)

Lichenicolous on the thallus of Aspicilia calcarea
Chemical results: Epithecium greenish-black, K+ green

Found on Aspicilia calcarea on hard limestone

Thallus immersed in host, producing small clusters of initially immersed black apothecia. Spores persistently 1-septate, (9-)10-14 x 3.5-4.5 Ám. Pycnidia absent. Microscope photograph below.

Similar: Opegrapha parasitica is also found on Aspicilia calcarea but the spores are 3-septate, 16-22 x 6-8 Ám, hyaline becoming brown

Toninia episema

Toninia episema

Microscope photograph
Toninia episema, spores
Toninia episema
On Aspicilia calcarea. Wareham, Dorset. April 2013

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